Thrust Bearing Use For Quadcopter Drone Propeller Assembly And Air Bearings For Inner Motor Assembly

Should we be using different bearings for our high-speed rotor blades which are used on the most common drone types like the Quadcopter designs? I believe so, as these drones need to be very reliable, long range, and will have important cargo onboard as part of their important missions whether on the battlefield, commercial application or delivering you a very important pizza or Amazon package.

Not long ago, I was listening to an interesting NASA podcast on rotorcraft air bearings and foil bearings:

NASA Aeronautics Research Technical Seminar Podcast Series:

“Technical Seminar 16: Oil-Free Turbomachinery Technology for Rotorcraft Propulsion and Advanced Aerospace Propulsion and Power 1:14:33 11/24/2008. Oil-Free Turbomachinery Technology for Rotorcraft Propulsion and Advanced Aerospace Propulsion and Power”

This got me thinking that not only is this relevant to today’s military aircraft, space flight propulsion, future jet engines, but also relevant for high-speed little motors that spin well over 10,000 RPM. If we want these motors to last and if there are multiple motors per flying craft; MAV – Micro Air Vehicle, UAS – Unmanned Aerial System, or PFC – Personal Flying Craft (Air Taxi) then it makes sense to use such technology.

You see, I was thinking that it would sure be nice to lighten-up the motors on such future VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) aircraft concept designs since there are often 3-4 motors or more. Some of the benefits are very apropos:

1.) Nearly Maintenance Free Bearing Assembly

2.) Reduced Weight

3.) More even friction heat

This is a very good thing due to the geometry and weight distribution that Quadcopters have. Lower weight means more payload, less fuel and/or longer range.

Perhaps the weight savings of lube oil, (2-types needed in normal current helicopter technology) on each of the four motors could also give weight space for electromagnetic bearings with a thrust bearing combination around the outer ring on the rotorblades to control vibration and free-wheel free of drag, and easy start. If the motors happen to be electric, even better in this case. If high speed gas turbines we save weight and add safety to a nearly maintenance free design.

Some of the NASA tests have concluded 60,000 hours with no damage or need to replace parts or bearings. For a rotorcraft this is nearly unheard of due to the harsh environment they fly and the fact that the motors are under so significant load all the time the aircraft is airborne.

Now then, for the outer assembly – more safety is garnered by outer bearings, but reduced friction is the key, thus, electromagnetic system makes sense, but due to weight perhaps not 100% magnetic. This article explains the concept of Thrust Bearings and the combinations I propose we employ.

“Design, Fabrication, and Performance of Foil Gas Thrust Bearings for Microturbomachinery Applications,” by Brian Dykas, Robert Bruckner, Christopher DellaCorte, Brian Edmonds, and Joseph Prahl. (NASA/TM-2008-215062, January 2008; GT2008-50377).

Currently, we know that the quadcopter design is probably one of the most stable designs yet, but most quadcopters are only toys, small drones, and have a limited payload. If we want these types of designs to fly around people, heavy weight, or become our future flying cars and air taxis, commuter shuttles, we’ll need near 100% safety, that means current rotorcraft components may not be viable. Please think about the future, maybe you can have a flying car after all?

*Additional Cites to Consider When Evaluating This Concept:

A.) “Preliminary Analysis for an Optimized Oil-Free Rotorcraft Engine Concept,” by Samuel A. Howard, Robert J. Bruckner, Christopher, Kevin C. Radil. (NASA/TM-2008-215064 March 2008; ARL-TR-4398).

B.) “Tribology: Principles and Design Applications,” by R. D. Arnell, P. B. Davies, J. Halling, T. L. Whomes.

C.) “Measurements of Drag Torque, Lift-Off Journal Speed and Temperature in a Metal Mesh Foil Bearing,” by Luis San Andres, T. A. Chirathadam, Keun Ryu, and Tae Ho Kim (J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(11), 112503 (Aug 11, 2010) (7 pages)doi:10.1115/1.4000863).

D.) “Thermohydrodynamic Model Predictions and Performance Measurements of Bump-Type Foil Bearing for Oil-Free Turboshaft Engines in Rotorcraft Propulsion Systems,” by Tae Ho Kim and Luis San Andres. (J. Tribol 132(1), 011701 (Nov 11, 2009) (11 pages)doi:10.1115/1.4000279).

E.) “Foil Bearing Starting Considerations and Requirements for Rotorcraft Engine Applications,” by K. C. Radil (Army Research Lab) and C. Della Corte (NASA). August 2009, Doc # 201200112857, (ARL-TR-4873, E-18263).

Benefits of Choosing an MBA Program

An MBA course is perfect for those people who want to develop some additional skills. It is the only management course which enables you to gain managerial skills, attractive salary and exciting career opportunities. It has become one of the most benefited courses all over the world and recruiters are always ready to hire MBA degree holders. This degree comes with multiple benefits and if you are not aware of it, then let me tell you what the benefits are-

1. Convertible skills: Through MBA program, you will not just enhance your skills but it will increase your career prospects as well. Most of the MBA students dream their career in finance or consulting as it requires both hard and soft skills which can be easily transferable to other infinite roles. There are also many MBA aspirants who are working in tech, healthcare, consumer goods, government and nonprofits, and other industries.

2. High in demand: For MBA holders, it is easy to find a suitable job in big companies as there are many job opportunities for MBA aspirants in all industries. This degree not just provides you with a high salary but also increase your job security. As per the latest annual poll released, it is forecasted that there is a high job demand for MBA graduates. Out of 100% of employers, there are 96% of employers who prefer to hire a business school graduate.

3. Degree specializations: One can pursue MBA degree in a particular field also as per their choice which will allow them to work directly in that particular industry. Moreover, these specialization courses will provide some sample of different industries through which students can decide whether it will fit into their career or not before taking any decision.

4. Networking opportunities: During MBA program, you will not just learn business skills but also get chance to interact with talented individuals closely from all over the world. Networking with highly experienced individuals will not just enhance your skills but also provide a great exposure to learn different business practices, cultures and points of view.

Hope this article has cleared all your confusion regarding MBA career. If you really want to experience a successful career with great earnings, then it is the right career option for you. After completing MBA degree, one can either work with top companies of the world or can start their own business. So, choose a career which will benefit you from all aspects.


Autism-Individual and Group Mind Reading, Telepathy, FC, ESP, and Altered States of Consciousness

Telepathy, shared consciousness, higher thought forms – these and other instantaneous, in-depth, comprehensive forms of communication are all part of my reality. My teachers are nonverbal children and adults with autism. My challenge is to understand and explain the communication process that takes place between us. My dream and passion is come together with people who are willing to open themselves to these amazing individuals – to learn from them and share with them. And my hope, together with all who want to join me, is to solve the issues raised by a way of communicating that is not yet readily understood.

I started using this process years ago when I was a classroom teacher for kids with autism. Almost immediately, the students awed me with their natural ability to shift their energies and communicate at a soul level. Over the years, I came to realize that most of my students with limited verbal ability shared this gift to varying degrees. Many of them also demonstrated with extreme accuracy, either by picking the correct word card or typing out a response, that they were capable of receiving my words telepathically. Right now, when I’m on the receiving end, accepting that I’m accurately transcribing their telepathic messages is still a work in progress.

The process I use is similar to channeling or receiving information from higher realms of consciousness. Much, though not all, of the material I receive is mystical in nature and speaks of universal truths such as love, unity, and interdimensional cooperation. So instead of going directly to spirit, I share consciousness with my autistic intermediaries, whose expanded states of awareness open doors to comprehending higher levels of consciousness.

My job when sharing consciousness with these wonderful individuals is to promote, or facilitate, communication. Facilitated communication (FC) is a process in which the facilitator provides physical and emotional support to the nonverbal person. That usually takes the form of a hand or arm to hold or lean on, along with the more subtle emotional support that goes with that. But I believe the relationship also has a telepathic and energetic component that is often overlooked. The close physical contact and concentrated focus involved in the FC process aid in the formation of a shared awareness. Through the merging of thought forms and the synchronization of brain waves and sensory systems, the nonverbal person becomes better able to comprehend physical reality. In return, the process of consciousness sharing has given me, the communication facilitator, an ever expanding understanding of the universe.

Often, I lacked the time to facilitate individual students, so out of sheer frustration, I began sending out telepathic requests to people, inviting them to join consciousness with me in the evening from my home. Initially, I used the process to ask specific kids what they wanted to learn and how I could help. I also began asking them as a group, rather than as individuals, when I expected more of a universal or spiritual response to my questions.

Below is a transmission I received from a group-mind telepathy session about the telepathic process itself. I have done some very minor editing, and until I’m confident that my ego or other thought forms are not mixed in with the communication, I will continue to share the authorship and responsibility for the transcribed material.


Can you tell me about group telepathy?


Autism group-mind telepathy creates a force field to transfer quantum understanding so that it can be interpreted in a linear format. It allows random particles to align to create pictures or thought forms that can then be described using words. Much, but not all, is lost in the translation. To clarify more fully, think of a funnel. The expansiveness of the quantum experience is poured into the top of the funnel. It is slowed down as it trickles through the spout into the conscious mind. Right now only a partial understanding is possible, because that is all the conscious self can absorb. The more in tune the recipient is with subconscious awareness, the more he is able to grasp.

The expansiveness of the subconscious meanders to fit the constraints of the conscious mind. As the spout continues to widen, more of the subconscious comes through, deepening the understanding of concepts lost by to those dominated by language. Letting go of ego constraints and sharing your subconscious with individuals with severe autism accelerates the process. When you exercise this capability, your understanding of consciousness deepens.

Autistic mind telepathy sees more of the entirety of our individual and collective journey. Open your heart and ask to join consciousness with them. Acknowledge the flow between the conscious, subconscious, and super-conscious. They are ready to assist but will give you only as much as you allow or are capable of grasping. We are at home in the subconscious and super-conscious states of knowing. By merging energy with us, your funnel spout broadens, resulting in a stronger flow of information and an enhanced understanding of our respective states of awareness. Your ego-dominant reality becomes more understandable to us as altered states and direct knowing become more accessible to you.

Shared knowledge or telepathic blending of energy is a joining of minds, a linking of souls, a partnership of blended energy particles. It demands a shared vocabulary and an open awareness that the mind is separate from the body. The mind or soul exists before conception and after death and depends on the body for language-based expression. As the scope, breadth, and depth of information not dependent on words develops, the inclination of mind above matter is to create a unifying cohesiveness, magically, magnetically, and exponentially resistant to external chaos. Mutual consent, trust, and expectancy are necessary for “subconscious communion” to happen. It is a the heartfelt connection that makes telepathic communication automatic.

The participants involved merge. Together they send, receive, and interpret the data and respond to it. When listening or receiving information from higher thought forms, interference can occur, causing distortion as the person most connected to his conscious mind can unwittingly and unknowingly become dominant. Know when to lead and when to follow. It takes a tremendous amount of trust and practice. Focused intent, calm internal demeanor, and mutual focus help the flow to continue uninterrupted by outside forces. Balance is created as a “united field” of thought particles searches and clings for [the] words for expression.

The understanding of mind-to-mind subconscious merging of thought waves is in its infancy. There is no turning back for the explorers of evolutionary communication that have experienced the process.

Nonverbal souls, often diagnosed with severe autism, retain their connection to higher realms and long to teach the process to those open and willing to learn.

If you are one of those souls who is prompted to let go of your preconceived ideas and join others to openly explore and discuss all aspects of these phenomena, I would love to hear from you.

Resurrecting an Old Technology – VSR Motors

A 170 year old electrical technology, called variable switched reluctance (VSR) motors was resurrected in the 1980s with the advent of electronic controllers. The Texas based Le has developed a wheeled front end loader for mining work which use large horsepower VSR motors for its wheel drives. Basically, a VSR motor comprises a rotor and a stator with a coil winding in the stator. The rotor, which consists of a laminated permeable material with teeth, is a passive device with no coil winding or permanent magnets.

The stator typically consists of slots containing a series of coil winding, the energization of which is electronically switched to generate a moving field. When one stator coil is set on, a magnetic flux path is generated around the coil and the rotor. The rotor experiences a torque and is moved in the line with the energized coils, minimizing the flux path. with the approximate switching and energization of the stator coils, the rotor can be encouraged to rotate at any desired torque and speed.

VSR Motors offers the following advantages: Since there are no brushes ringing, there is no requirement of commutator maintenance. the motor is more robust since there are no coils or moving parts. A VSR motor can maintain higher torque and efficiency over broader speed ranges than is possible with other advanced variable speed systems. In addition, as the commutation can be accurately controlled with respect to the rotor angle, the motor will operate at its predicted high efficiency. With VSR technology it is possible to design a low cost motor with over 90% system efficiency and variable speed.

VSR motors can be programmed to precisely match the loads the serve, and their simple rugged construction has no expensive magnets or squirrel cages like the induction motor. VSR motors are smaller than DC motors. VSR motor is inherently resistant to overload and immune to single point failure. They have a high level of fault tolerance and are immune to switching faults. According t a spokesman of Le Tourneau, While the initial cost of SR motor and control is a little more expensive than standard DC system, in the failure, there may be little or no difference in the manufacturing costs due to decreasing prices of electronic components. VSR motors are not without their drawbacks, however. The most significant downside is the acoustic noise and the large vibration caused by the motor’s high pulsating magnetic flux. Another limitation is torque ripple. But while these drawbacks have an effect in small horsepower VSR motors, they are of no significance in large horsepower traction motors.

How to Increase Education Percentage in India

India is a country which has though adopted the Right to Education Act and has made a mention of this right in Article 21A of the Indian Constitution; even then India has strived to achieve a literacy rate of only 74-75 percent. This figure may seem huge, but the simple criteria to certify a person as literate along with the advancing world is referred; the figure seems to be a small one only.

To determine the literacy rate along with the percent of educated people we need to discuss upon various heads of education in India. Here we will discuss some topics to increase Education Percentage in India.

Primary Education

The opening up of the Anganwadi centers and the Indian government schools at each and every city and village has brought most of the children to school. Moreover, the appropriate governments also provide the students with various perks like free education, meals, books and uniform. This is the level of education where most of the students are enrolled and it is going up.

Secondary Education

This is the level where the drop out from school begins. The reason being, the poor conditions of the family. Not in all States, the education till the secondary level is free. The poor send their sons to work and get their daughters married after they complete their primary education. Scholarship schemes can help benefit this level of education.

Higher Education

This is the level of education where most of the students tend not to opt for. The reason being the high fees. It is very much evident that top class government colleges like IIT, NLU, AIIMS, IIM, NIFT are all high prices and private institutions charge double and more. Due to this reason, most the population which is either poor, or constitutes of the lower middle class doesn’t send their children for higher education. They prefer sending their children for jobs. The Central and the State universities charge less but still the poor household cannot afford the same. In this regard, the various scholarship schemes have played a very important role and so has reservation.

Adult Education

This is one of the trends mostly observed in the rural areas. The reason being, the population is unaware of the perks of being literate. In rural areas, night schools are operated by NGOs where the farmers who are not literate and also, the population who is senior is change are taught free of cost. This type of schooling is becoming popular and is bearing fruitful results.

Gender Literacy

The gender literacy is a big issue for the country to tackle. If we rely on the stats, then we can see that 82 percent of the males are literate as compared to 65 percent of females. A huge gap of 17 percent still lies. Though the 2011 census figures are better than the previous ones. It is only due to the different schemes introduced by the various State Governments with the support of the Central government. Schemes like Cycle Yojana, Uniform, Free meals and most importantly, free education have attracted most of the female students in the nation to schools. The poor parents are now sending their daughters to school.

Education is very much important to survive in the globalized world of today. It is most of the times seen that the poor people are the ones who remain literate and so do their children. This is one of the reasons due to which they are victimized. But, the efforts of the governments at the different levels have helped increase the literacy rate in the recent years and are continuing to do the same.